How Do UPSs Work? UPS Batteries as An Energy Storage System

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Data center power outages can be highly costly. In fact, there are many factors that can destabilize electrical energy. For example, technical failures, natural phenomena, electrical storms, power surges, among others. We supply best products APC distributor in Pakistan.

The main cause of the largest outages was due to power problems. According to the report, 43% of surveyed owners and operators confirmed. And every 6 out of 10 outages has cost businesses more than $100,000.

Fortunately, there are Uninterruptible Power Supplies, better known as UPSs. Which provide temporary electrical power in the event of a failure.

They commonly use to protect hardware such as computers, data centers, telecommunications equipment, or other electrical equipment. Where an unexpected power outage could cause property damage, serious business interruption, data loss, and even physical harm to people.

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For example, the case of the health field is important. Where it requires to have equipment connected to the electrical network 24/7. An uninterruptible power supply is completely necessary. Since it allows medical equipment to operate continuously. Without risking life of the people who need them.

How Do UPSs Work?


UPSs activated when the network stops providing electrical energy. And offer a window of time to shut down the systems connected to it. This is a safe way to avoid damage to active equipment. As well as to support and protect any type of valuable information.

Another of its functions is to improve the quality of the electrical energy. That reaches the loads, as a filter that fills voltage rises and falls.

Every uninterruptible power supply system needs to maintain in an environment with environmental conditions. That give quality to the energy with which it works. As well as electrical protection and an adequate grounding system.

Internally, UPSs are an electrical storage unit. Such as a battery and a power system. So, the main supply is active. Also, the UPS stands by and charges its battery. But if a sudden power outage occurs. It kicks in to become the primary power source. Keeping the data center running without even noticing the change.

UPSs have 4 fundamental components:

  • Rectifier,
  • Inverter,
  • Static Bypass Switch And
  • UPS Batteries.


Also known as the charger. It is an electronic device that converts the input alternating current (AC) into direct current (DC). In turn, it helps recharge the batteries while direct current points to the inverter.

UPS rectifiers can handle wide input voltage fluctuations. Meaning the system will be able to handle surges or spikes. And without having to connect batteries.

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As its name implies, the inverter reverses current flow. Converts DC power from the rectifier or energy storage system into AC output power. It powers the critical load.

This conversion (DC to AC) and filtering process smooths out events. Such as spikes, dips, surges, and electrical noise. Ensuring that the final output is a stable, repetitive waveform or oscillation.

Static Bypass Switch

APC distributor in Pakistan

APC distributor in Pakistan

This component is a safeguard in case there is a failure within the UPS system. The static bypass switch automatically and instantly connects the load to the electrical grid. And bypassing the rectifier, inverter, or UPS batteries.

While transferring electrical power is not ideal. Since there is no filtering or conditioning. As the UPS typically does. The switch function allows the equipment to continue operating. While we repair or replace the UPS.

Internal static bypass switches can be confused with an external maintenance bypass switch. However, the latter is an added benefit that allows the UPS to manually shut down for maintenance. While the utility power directly drives the critical load.

External maintenance bypass switches add the ability to remove the UPS from the site. That provides local isolation capabilities. And allow all AC A wiring to completed prior to UPS delivery.

UPS Batteries

APC distributor in Pakistan

APC distributor in Pakistan

Every UPS needs an energy storage system in case of input power failure. In this case it is batteries.

UPS batteries store and provide emergency power. When unexpected events occur that affect power. flow.

UPSs have at least one string of batteries connected in series. So, if a single battery fails, the entire string will also fail. It is important to note that the new equipment already provides battery modules. It connects in parallel. So that in case of damage to a battery in series. The power does not stop to the inverter. Although this does reduce the duration time.

The number of batteries required depends on the DC voltage of the UPS. In small systems, the batteries are usually internal to the unit. Whereas in larger UPSs, the batteries house in their own separate cabinets.

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Types Of UPS Batteries

There are three main types of batteries used in UPSs. These are as follows:

  • Nickel-Cadmium,
  • Lead-Acid (VRLA And VLA), And
  • Lithium-Ion

These batteries work and choses depending on the specific needs required.

Lead – Acid

Lead-acid batteries have a proven record of accomplishment of reliability when used in a UPS. The high horsepower applications are discrete. The weight is not the primary concern. They provide the most economical option. Furthermore, they provide excellent performance. And provide efficiency with low internal impedance and high tolerance to improper treatment.

There are two types of Batteries:

VRLA (Valve Regulated Lead Acid)

APC distributor in Pakistan

APC distributor in Pakistan

VRLA UPS batteries completely seals and can install in any orientation. This battery has a valve that allows any gas buildup to escape into the atmosphere. They typically do not require direct maintenance. Such as adding water.

Because the hydrogen released during charging internally recombined with oxygen to form water. It is rechargeable and consists of a series of lead-acid cells housed in a single container. Two lead plates suspend in an electrolyte and aqueous sulfuric acid solution in these cells.

While in use, the battery generates power by reducing the lead plates. Turning them into Lead-Sulphur Oxide. When charge the battery, the process reverses. Meaning that lead-sulfuric oxide breaks down and reverts to pure lead and sulfuric acid. The inversion process requires hydrogen gas to release. Before it can fully mix with the water inside the battery container. This prevents the buildup of hydrogen gas. Which can cause the battery to explode. It also uses a vent to relieve pressure.

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Battery Design Life

They typically have a design life of 5-10 years. And a service life of 3-5 years. They best store in a dry, heated room at a temperature of 20-25 °C seals. They can mount vertically or horizontally. So, they can use in rack mount trays or external cabinets. Which can work very well for a data center installation.

Absorbed Glass Material (AGM), in which the electrolyte detains within a highly porous glass microfiber separator. This is one of the two main types of VRLA batteries. And gel, which contains a gel electrolyte composed of sulfuric acid and silica.

These batteries have long been the most popular type of UPS battery. As they are affordable and readily available. Therefore, these are also relatively cheaper than the rest.
VLA (Flooded Wet Cell/Open Vent)

These batteries have plates flooded with electrolytic acid to trigger a chemical reaction. As they do not seal. The hydrogen generated during their operation escapes directly into the environment. So, the ventilation systems must be more powerful than those of VRLA and properly dimensioned.

When the battery is operating, the acid binds to the lead plates. Causing a chemical reaction that sends an electrical current through the attached circuit. We measure and carefully monitored fluid for the battery to function optimally. Therefore, requires periodic inspection and maintenance.

Forced handling can damage this type of battery. The electrolyte solution can evaporate or freeze depending on the case. If this is or if this is not in the ideal environmental conditions. Commonly uses in automobiles. Large stationary uninterruptible power supplies. And stand-alone power systems are among others.

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Battery Design Life

They can provide a longer design life, up to 20 years. But require more maintenance compared to their VRLA counterparts. They must keep at a constant temperature between 20 -25°C. To avoid reducing their useful life or even causing any damage. We use them in large installations. And place in a dedicated room with flushing facilities in case of acid leaks. Since we do not seal them. They need to be upright and not used in cabinets. So, they are not suitable for office environments or data center installations.

Power Backup Conditions

If you are looking for the best power backup conditions for mission-critical applications. It can assist you in resolving your issue. And preventing discharges, power outages, natural phenomena, or any unexpected failure from risking your operation.

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